Surviving an Air Ambulance Crash in the Middle of Nowhere

Now, that’s a scary situation isn’t it? Imagine that you’re in an air ambulance and it crashes in the wilderness. What would be your first reaction if you know that you’re going to be stranded for at least a couple of days? Search for food, correct? In reality, that’s the worst mistake that you can make. A typical human being can survive up to 3 weeks with no food at all but can only last up to 3 days without any water. We bring you several survival tips in this guide.

Staying Close to the Crashed Air Ambulance Vehicle is Vital

Wandering off in the wilderness in search of help is not wise. The rescue personnel are, obviously, going to look for the crash site and not wandering survivors. If you’ve moved too far away from the crash site, you might not even be found. So, it’s wise to stay close to the air ambulance and wait for help.

Protect Yourself from Harsh Weather Conditions

If the air ambulance is still in a condition where it can provide you shelter, use it. If not, try to erect a simple tent with sticks that can protect you from the sunlight. It must be noted that aircrafts are not the ideal shelters in extreme weather conditions. Seeking other forms of shelter is advised. The survivor, in this case, needs to be innovative.

Lighting a Fire and Hunting for Water is Important for Survival

Fire not only keeps the survivor warm, but also acts as a signal for rescuers. Keep the fire lit at all times as much as possible; however, beware of the dangers that a fire poses. Don’t get it too big. Also, your air ambulance might still have some water reserves left; use it judiciously. If you find a water source nearby, use purifying tablets before consuming it. If you do not have these, simply boil it for about 5 minutes.

Evolution of Medical Air Services

The word, Korea, brings to mind the latest development between the two nations – one a proponent of democracy and the other a dictatorship. What most people do not know is that Korea, as a whole, had a huge part to play in the evolution of medical air services. It all began during the Korean conflict in the 50’s of the last century. Making way in the conflict-ridden zone was no joke, owing to the bad reach and wartime danger. What came handy was a modified chopper that could carry patients to the nearest medical base, just in time to save life or at least salvage a limb.

The Idea of Medical Air Services Took Off

The success of the modified aircraft to serve as an air ambulance was a great success. This inspired the military to dedicate choppers for this very purpose. It is believed that over 20 thousand soldiers were rescued using military medical air services. However, owing to the technology and limited logistics of the time, the concept did not make its way to civilian lives for quite some time. Medical air services got further military acceptance when over 80 thousand soldiers benefited from them during the Vietnam War. All the wars from the time of the Second World War had seen medical air services evolve.

The Foothold into Civilian Lives

The mid 1960’s saw a path-changing societal research paper titled, “Accidental Death and Disability.” It questioned the fundamental logic behind limiting medical air services for military use. It brought to light how air ambulances can be of immense help to save civilian lives during medical emergencies ranging from motor vehicle accidents to cardiac arrests. By this time, aviation logistics had also evolved greatly. The result: first medical air service saw the day of light in the United States in 1972. By the turn of the century, over 203 thousand people were benefiting from medical air services.

Medical Flight Safety – Oxygen System Checks

The advancement in medical flight performance has a lot to do with the development in oxygen equipment in recent times. Typically, medical flights make use of portable oxygen equipment at altitudes less than 10 thousand feet above the sea level and fixed oxygen equipment if attitudes above 10 thousand feet are achieved by the air ambulance on a regular basis. Typically, the oxygen equipment consists of storage system, tubing, gauges, and mask. Traditionally, oxygen has been carried in gaseous form; however, the new advancements in technology have made way to solid stage oxygen which allows for carrying of greater quantities of oxygen.

Equipment Check Before the Medical Flight Takes Off

It must be ensured that all occupants of the medical flight are well aware of how to don and doff oxygen masks and fit the head harness properly. They should also be knowledgeable about checking the pressure gauges and indicators. Of course, it’s also necessary to check them for faults before the flight. The paramedics would do all these checks for the patients aboard the medical flight.

Each oxygen container is designed to withstand altitude up to a certain level. This must be taken into consideration before embarking on the medical journey. The expected duration of breathing and the duration of the flight are other aspects that must be considered.

Types of Oxygen Masks and Regulators

Continuous flow regulator ensures a 100% flow of oxygen. This usually contains a re-breather mask that allows the user to reuse some of the exhaled oxygen.

Demand and pressure demand works by providing oxygen to the user on demand. In other words, the oxygen only becomes available when the user is inhaling. Such oxygen usage is very stable and can be used up to 10 thousand feet above the sea level. This type of oxygen release becomes necessary in fixed wing aircraft where there travel long distances, often across continents.

How is Air Ambulance Cost Calculated?

The last thing that comes to mind during emergencies is money. Staying alive takes priority over everything else and naturally so. It is after the emergency and when you are inadequately covered by insurance that air ambulance cost finally comes into picture. There are several factors on which medical flight costs depend on. In this guide, we briefly discuss the important cost factors.

The Distance that Air Ambulance Needs to Cover

Unlike a cab that usually considers the distance from the point that you occupy it, air ambulance charges go beyond this point. You might be expected to cover the cost from the air ambulance base to your location and also for the journey undertaken by the air ambulance to get back to its base. Opting for the nearest air ambulance might make more sense in situations like these.

The Type of Air Ambulance Vehicle

For longer distances, an air ambulance with a jet engine might be more suited. Of course, this might translate into higher costs. At the same time, helicopters are ideal for emergencies that occur on busy streets. While one cannot exactly choose which vehicle to hire, it must be understood that aircraft type and costs are directly related to each other.

The Extent of Care the Health Condition Demands

There are two components to medical care: personnel and equipment. If the condition demands that the air ambulance be loaded with advanced life support and monitoring systems, the costs will shoot up. Also, there might be a requirement for specialized human care that only highly skilled professionals can provide. And such care usually comes at a premium.

Air Ambulance Landing Fees and Logistical Charges

When an air ambulance lands on an airport or helipad, it is usually charged a fee for it. Also there might be other charges such as visa, hospital booking, ground ambulance charges, etc. Your air ambulance service provider is obviously going to factor all that in while drawing the bill.

Guide to Tackling Hypoxia on Medical Flights at High Altitudes

Hypoxia is almost a certainty at high altitudes unless it is cared for. However, it does not usually occur as medical flights usually have pressurised cabins. This does not mean that we do not pay any heed to this potentially life-threatening condition, which is a real possibility on medical flights, when the altitudes are in excess of 10 thousand feet above the sea level.

The word hypoxia, when literally translated means lack of oxygen. A decrease in supply of oxygen to human body can bring about myriad symptoms and recognizing these, especially when in medical flights, is extremely important, as patients are usually already in a weak health position in air ambulances.

The Signs of Hypoxia on Medical Flights

Paramedics and nurses onboard medical flights must look for signs such as impaired judgement, lethargy, poor physical coordination, bluing of the skin (also known as cyanosis) and rapid breathing. The intensity of each of these signs may vary but these are the most visible signs that the patient is experiencing hypoxia.

The Symptoms of Hypoxia on Medical Flights

Surprisingly, euphoria or extreme happiness can be a symptom of hypoxia. Other symptoms can be a sensation of tingling, impaired visual capacity, cold or hot flashes, dizziness, headache, nausea, fatigue and air hunger. Not all symptoms might be present in one single individual but at least some of these might be present when the patients are hypoxic in medical flights.

The Effects of Hypoxia on Human Beings

It must be noted that about 20% of all oxygen that we take in is used by our brain. So, one of the first organs that is affected by hypoxia is the brain. If the brain is deprived of oxygen, it can lead to severe and permanent brain damage leaving the person with impaired functions for life. In extreme cases, it may even cause death. However, treating hypoxia, fortunately, is easy. All that patients aboard medical flights need is 100% oxygen and the symptoms vanish within a matter of seconds.

Holidaying with Peace of Mind Means Having Access to Air Ambulance Services

Travel insurance is the safety net that you need when travelling abroad, especially in countries where the quality of health care is not the same as the one you enjoy in your home country. In such situations, air ambulance can become an absolute necessity. Most people assume that travel insurances automatically ensure an air ambulance to their home countries if they felt there is a necessity and that it is the patients’ choice to get the treatment wherever they desire; however, these beliefs are far from true. The insurance company can actually deny a claim and for the patient to get treatment in the visiting country. The company would weigh the cost advantage in situations like these.

Checks Air Ambulance Cover Before Purchasing the Travel Insurance

Explore as many travel insurance options as you can before zeroing down on a specific one. Reveal upfront the kind of activities you plan to indulge in and check out the premiums. If you have any pre-existing illness, make that known clearly and check out the premiums. The fear of higher premiums must not deter you from making this revelation as you can get into a huge financial mess owing to this mistake later.

Know Your Coverage Well

Also, some activities are considered very high risk and certain travel insurance policies might not cover them. If you’re going to be a part of some extreme adventure event, check out the facilities that the organizers offer and also whether the insurance company is willing to cover the mishaps that occur during such activities.

There have been several instances in the recent past where the travelers have not bothered to look closely enough whether the insurance company covers air ambulance services and later have had to resort to crowd funding to afford international air ambulance services. A little homework can avoid such issues and make your travel more secure and safe.

Understanding the Term ‘Medical Necessity’ in the Context of Medical Flights

One of the most basic criteria for insurances approving and covering costs of medical flights is establishing that there was actually a medical necessity for availing the service. However, understanding what constitutes a ‘medical necessity’ is important. Of course, we have discussed, in our earlier guides, that the decision to summon air ambulances can only be taken by the treating medical professionals in the hospital or at the site of accidents. Let’s dive into this topic a little deep here.

Medical Flights and their Advantage Over Ground Ambulances

It must be established or deemed important to leverage the advantage that medical flights have over ground ambulances. The instability that comes with transporting a patient via ground ambulance and the need for rapid medical transportation could be the two reasons to avail medical flight services. Further, the condition of the patient should be such that he or she could suffer serious medical consequences or even face death if an air ambulance is not used.

Accessibility of the Destination

An air ambulance can become a ‘medical necessity’ if the destination is located in a region that is remote or completely inaccessible to other forms of transportation. The ground approach to the destination could be such that it poses a serious threat to the patient owing to the terrain.

Time Taken to Reach the Nearest Treating Facility

There are times when a delay as small as 30 minutes to an hour can mean the difference between life and death. The ground ambulances may be available in such scenarios but the time that they take to reach the treating facility could be a deterrent and the advantage of quick transportation that comes with medical flights could be the advantage. Of course, the severity of the illness or the disease condition would be the primary factor behind this decision.

Qualifying for Medical Flight Insurance Reimbursements

‘Stringent’ is the word that comes to mind when you think of medical flight insurance coverage norms. Cost reimbursements of medical flights can mean between a retaining your life savings and letting it go to cover the huge bills. It is important to know the basis on which insurance companies accept or deny the claims. Of course, the foremost thing is to own a health insurance policy that covers medical flight services or medical transportation of any form for that matter. If this condition is taken care of, following are the other conditions that you must be mindful of.

Insurance Coverage for Medical Flight Services

Medical flight services to and from hospitals are covered by Medicare Part B. It is worthy to note here that air medical transportation to skilled nursing facilities is also covered under Part B. However, it should be noted that medical flight coverage is provided when it is deemed that ground ambulances are not suitable for the medical condition or when it is determined that the patient is in dire need of care and timely care is possible when the patient is carried to the treating facility in the shortest possible time via an air ambulance.

Approval by the Treating Professional is Necessary

The ultimate decision of whether a medical flight service is necessary lies with the treating professional who could be a physician or a paramedic attending an emergency. This decision cannot be taken by the patient and in most cases cannot be overruled either.

If the medical flight company feels that the patient might not be able to pay for its services, it can ask the patient to sign Advance Beneficiary Notice that states that the patient would be responsible for the payment in case the insurance company refuses reimbursement. The patient can refuse to sign this notice; however, if the air ambulance company goes ahead and carries the patient, he or she might still be held responsible for the payment.

Airambulance Guide: Altitude Decompression Sickness

Altitude decompression sickness is not unique to airambulance flights or to patients alone. It is a condition that is generally associated with high altitudes. It was only in the 1930s that this phenomenon was recognized by the medical community. The problem was observed in aircrafts as well as high-altitude hot-air balloons. Today, we have a better understanding of altitude decompression sickness, but still, we are not insulated from the dangers of this medical condition. It is a must that medical crews aboard airambulance flights are well aware of this. Here, we explain this condition in simpler terms.

This is What Airambulance Crew Members Need to be Aware of

The basis for understanding altitude decompression sickness is Henry’s Law, which says, “When the pressure of a gas over a liquid is decreased, the amount of gas dissolved in that liquid will also decrease.”

The concept is best explained with the example of soda. What do you observe when the bottle is opened? The formerly ‘calm’ liquid suddenly sees a flurry of activities. The air bubbles that previously were nonexistent suddenly show an insane urgency to escape the bottle, pushing their way through the liquid. Why does this happen? The answer is Henry’s Law.

When the bottle is sealed, the pressure inside is at a constant high, but when it is opened, the liquid is exposed to pressure in the atmosphere outside the bottle, which is comparatively much lower, so much of the gas escapes the liquid.

How Does Henry’s Law Relate to Human Body?

Human beings have high amounts of nitrogen gas throughout the body. When the airambulance is flying at high altitudes, if the cabin is not pressurized, the possibility is that nitrogen will escape the body, owing to the decreased atmospheric pressure that prevails at high altitudes. Of course, modern airambulance vehicles are well insulated from such dangers and can safely travel at high altitudes.

Hypoxia – A Condition that Medical Air Transport Personnel Should be Aware of

Literally translated, hypoxia means diminished availability of oxygen to the body, something that is quite common in medical air transport scenarios. However, a pre-existing condition that already has made the patient struggle for oxygen can further exacerbate while on the flight. Here, we discuss the reasons and also the different types of hypoxia. The intent is to create a quick reference for medical air transport personnel.

Why Worry About Hypoxia Onboard a Medical Air Transport Vehicle

The biggest risk of hypoxia is when the medical air transport flies over 12,000 square feet above the sea level in an unpressurized air craft. It must be noted that medical flights are pressurized at high altitudes. However, if not, and if no supplemental oxygen is available immediately, it can lead to hypoxia. This kind of hypoxia usually affects the lungs as is caused by partial pressure reduction of O2.

Histotoxic Hypoxia Could be a Danger

Histotoxic hypoxia is diminished ability to filter oxygen owing to narcotic or any other toxic substance. The patient loses the ability to get adequate oxygen. In situations like these, the medical air transport crew must take special care to avoid exacerbating the situation. The combination of histotoxic hypoxia and lack of oxygen pressure due to altitude can prove to be a deadly situation.

Understanding Stagnant Hypoxia

This is another form of hypoxia and is caused by exertion of positive G force in the Z axis. Other causes are heart failures and shock. All these interfere with the blood circulation for the worse and deprive the human body of adequate oxygen. However, medical air transport services always carry oxygen onboard and these conditions are easily taken care of.

Hypemic Hypoxia is Another Cause

This type of hypoxia is caused by health conditions that affect the oxygen levels in the blood. Prime examples for this are anemia and carbon monoxide positioning, both of which affect blood oxygen levels.

Air Ambulance and Medical Flight Transport Services: Everything you need to know!